the principle of the horn transline is known for a very long time. The Mayans, Celts and Egyptians (even in the pre-Dynastic period) have been able to use the physical properties of the animal hollow horn to amplify the sound. The physical nature of animal horns (expanding cabinet) has been and is used for various musical instruments (clarinet, trombone, trumpet, …).
Famous inventor Thomas Alva Edison in 1877 used the principle of Horn’s trasline to construct Phonograph, the first device to record and reproduce sound. At the beginning of the electric era, when the first tubes were formed, it was difficult to transfer the necessary power to the loudspeaker to excite them. The first usable speakers were therefore supplemented with the Horn transline. It has improved their efficiency.
With the onset of semiconductor technology (transistors), there is a trend of multiple bandwidth constructions of speaker systems that offer greater transmission power and a more compact, smaller construction. By tax is then using of the crossovers and low sensitivity of converters.
at present, broadband speaker systems with using the Horn transline are gaining attention again. Combined with the finest components, highly sensitive speakers with neodymium magnets, or even electromagnets to amplify the magnetic field, we can talk about the modern Renaissance Horn.. With its very high sensitivity, dynamics and spaciousness, with incredible details, the broadband structure of Horn is rightly the pinnacle of High-End Audios of the 21st century.
Horn’s expanding transline works as an acoustic transformer. The membrane of speaker driver from a hard material (paper, wood, aluminum, ceramics) on a small surface efficiently transmits this acoustic energy into a large area (soft air) , in the plane of the cabinet outlet into the space.
The modern horn structure utilizes energy of the back side membrane of the speaker changer (back-loaded horn) and transforms it into a listening space with great efficiency. It is here that the longer the cabinet can transmit lower frequencies. In general, the relationship is that the lower boundary frequency is 1/4 wavelength. Therefor F [Hz] = 345 (Sound Speed) / L (Soundtrack Length) / 4.
The Horn transline, or of the transline transduced pressure dynamics (input-exhale), mechanically dampens the speaker membrane and helps keep its voice coil in the ideal magnetic field of the air gap.
depending on the shape (the mathematical function of expanding Horn), we divide the Horn transline into hyperbolic, parabolic, conical and exponential. Next, we distinguish front-loaded Horn or back-loaded Horn.
The purpose of this article was to bring readers a basic orientation on the issue of “What does Horn mean?”. Perhaps this info will be useful to you. A more detailed mathematical description of the principle of energy transfer by the Horn transline and their distribution can be found in the well-worked article by Bjorn Kolbrek here: